The Facial Reconstruction of Anne Mowbray

In connection with his research on Eleanor Talbot and the CF2 bones found at the Norwich Carmel, John has commissioned facial reconstructions of the CF2 skull. But he also decided to explore whether a facial reconstruction could be commissioned of Eleanor Talbot’s equally famous niece, Anne Mowbray, Duchess of York and Norfolk.

Although Anne and Eleanor would never have met (because Anne was born four years after Eleanor’s death), Anne was the daughter of Eleanor’s sister, Elizabeth Talbot, Duchess of Norfolk. Later, Anne was married to Edward IV’s son, Richard of Shrewsbury. If Anne’s remains had not been reinterred in 1965, a sample of her mtDNA could easily have been used to prove or disprove the identity of the Norwich CF2 bones. But unfortunately that route cannot now be followed.

Nevertheless, extensive photographic records of Anne’s bones are held by the Museum of London. Using copies of a selection of images of the skull provided by the Museum of London Archaeological Archive, together with details of relevant measurements, John commissioned a facial reconstruction of Anne Mowbray via the University of Dundee. This was produced by Amy Thornton, alumna of the University of Dundee Msc forensic art course. The image is copyright, but a version of it is attached. A picture has also been included among the plates of John’s recent book, The Private Life of Edward IV.

Of course the eye colour used in the reconstruction is a guess. No scientific evidence is available. However, the hair colour was revealed by photographs of Anne’s hair as found in the coffin in 1964. It has sometimes been suggested that when reddish coloured hair is discovered in sealed coffins, this is due to the fact that pheomelanin (which causes red hair colour) is more likely to survive in such contexts than eumelanin (which causes other hair colours). However, John and Amy both sought academic advice on this point, and the expert advice was that, while Anne Mowbray’s tissue could not now be tested, probably she did have auburn hair, containing a mixture of red pheomelanin and brown eumelanin.

Facial reconstruction of Anne Mowbray, Duchess of York and Norfolk, daughter-in-law of Edward IV and niece of Eleanor Talbot (by Amy Thornton, alumna of the University of Dundee Msc forensic art course).

Facial reconstruction of CF2 (© Caroline Erolin, Medical and Forensic Artist, Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee) combined with a redrawing of the 1445 image of Eleanor Talbot’s father, John Talbot, first Earl of Shrewsbury (© John Ashdown-Hill).

Article on Richard III by Dr. John Ashdown-Hill

The last member of the house of York to sit upon the throne of England, in his lifetime Richard III seems to have been chiefly famous for his loyalty and good service to his elder brother, King Edward IV. However, after his own government was overthrown by a usurper with French support, but no valid claim to the English crown, Richard became famous chiefly for his heavily blackened reputation. This was by no means a unique event. Rewriting of history has occurred on other occasions in the wake of a violent change of regime.

Read the full article here:

New evidence: The bones of the ‘Princes in the Tower’ show no relationship to Richard III

Press Release for The Secret Queen by The History Press

Dr Ashdown-Hill, a leading expert on Richard III and the Wars of the Roses, and a key member of Philippa Langley’s Looking For Richard Project that discovered Richard III in a car park in Leicester, has today revealed that the ‘bones in the urn’ in Westminster Abbey, believed for centuries by traditional historians to be those of the ‘Princes in the Tower’, apparently have no blood relationship to King Richard III.

This discovery, which throws into question the identity of the ‘bones in the urn’, is revealed for the first-time in Dr Ashdown-Hill’s highly acclaimed work, The Secret Queen: Eleanor Talbot, the Woman Who Put Richard III on the Throne, in a new and updated paperback edition published in July by The History Press.

The ‘Princes in the Tower’ were the nephews of King Richard III
(1483-85) who vanished during his reign.

With no evidence of any murder, their disappearance ignited one of our greatest unsolved historical mysteries.

The remarkable finding is part of Dr Ashdown-Hill’s continuing investigation into the mythology surrounding Richard III and came about through his analysis of the medieval monarch’s dental record. 

X-ray evidence of skull from Norwich (possibly Talbot) with congenital missing tooth

X-ray evidence of skull from Norwich (possibly Talbot) with congenital missing tooth

The dental record reveals that Richard III had no congenitally missing teeth, in sharp contrast to the ‘bones in the urn’, where both skulls are said to present this genetic anomaly.

Previously it has been argued that this feature provided strong evidence of the royal identity of the ‘bones in the urn’.

It was claimed that the ‘Princes’ inherited their missing teeth from their grandmother, Cecily, Duchess of York.

But Dr Ashdown-Hill’s latest discovery strongly suggests that the ‘bones in the urn’ are not related to Cecily’s son, Richard III, who was a first degree relative of the ‘Princes’. 

Scientific studies of hypodontia (congenitally missing teeth) have further suggested that the anomaly is relatively rare, being present in less than 5% of the population, and is slightly more prevalent in the female population.

This discovery adds further weight to the many questions now surrounding the identity of the ‘bones in the urn’, and raises the possibility that the remains may even be those of as yet unidentified females.

In 1674, the bones were discovered at the Tower of London by workmen digging ten feet below the stairs that led from the Royal Apartments to the White Tower.

Four years later, they were reburied in the urn in Westminster Abbey by Charles II who had been persuaded to accept that the remains were the ‘Princes in the Tower’.

The story of a stair burial for the ‘Princes’ had been proposed in the 16th century by Thomas More. However, in his account, now generally discredited by academia as a dramatic narrative, More went on to say that the bodies were removed from the stair burial and taken elsewhere.

What caused the four-year delay in the reburial of the bones in Westminster during the reign of Charles II, where the bones were kept during this time, and if they are indeed the same bones that were discovered in 1674 by the workmen, is also not known.

Dr Ashdown-Hill states,

This newly-revealed dental evidence is another remarkable discovery from the results of the Looking For Richard Project. Modern scientific analysis applied to the flawed 1933 investigation of the ‘bones in the urn’ has revealed that the sex and historical period of death of the remains is unknown. My latest discovery now casts doubts on the dental claims put forward in 1934, 1965 and 1987. Nor can we be sure that there are just two sets of bones within the urn. It used to be thought that there were two sets of bones in the Clarence vault at Tewkesbury Abbey, where Richard III’s brother was buried. But when I had those remains re-examined in 2013 it emerged that there were three or possibly four individuals present – information published by The History Press in my book The Third Plantagenet. The only way we will ever truly be able to answer all the questions about the ‘bones in the urn’ is, of course, either by further archival discoveries, or scientific analysis.

He also states,

I’m very excited about this new, updated edition of my work on Eleanor Talbot, published by The History Press. The book includes a remarkable new facial reconstruction of Eleanor’s putative remains, produced by experts at the University of Dundee. It also contains important new dental evidence in respect of Eleanor’s putative remains, provides evidence of when and where she could have married Edward IV, and offers two new theories for what may have caused her early demise.  

Philippa Langley of the Looking For Richard Project states,

By discovering Richard III, the Looking For Richard Project succeeded in demolishing so many of the myths surrounding this much maligned monarch. We dared to question where others merely repeated. Indeed, by questioning the age-old story of the ‘bones in the river’ we succeeded in finding the king. Now it’s been revealed that the remains we found in Leicester question the received wisdom and dogma surrounding the disappearance of the sons of Edward IV. This exciting new discovery by Dr Ashdown-Hill is another step forward in our quest for knowledge, so that one day we may be able to uncover the truth about one of our most enduring historical mysteries. The search continues.

John Ashdown-Hill is a freelance historian and a bestselling author with a PhD in history. He regularly presents his research, and has achieved an excellent reputation in late medieval history. A Channel Four TV documentary was partially based upon Ashdown-Hill’s DNA research in The Last Days of Richard III. In 2015, Philippa Langley and Dr Ashdown-Hill were awarded MBEs by HM The Queen for their work in the discovery and identification of Richard III.

Published Works

  • The Secret Queen: Eleanor, the Woman Who Put Richard III on the Throne (The History Press, 2009, 2010, updated new edition in2016)
  • The Dublin King: The True Story of Edward, Earl of Warwick, Lambert Simnel, and the ‘Princes in the Tower’ (The History Press, 2015)
  • The Mythology of Richard III (Amberley, 2015)
  • The Wars of the Roses (Amberley, 2015)
  • The Third Plantagenet: George, Duke of Clarence, Richard III’s Brother  (The History Press, 2014)
  • The Last Days of Richard III (The History Press, 2010, 2011, second updated edition 2013)
  • Royal Marriage Secrets: Consorts & Concubines, Bigamists & Bastards (The History Press, 2013)
  • Richard III’s ‘Beloved Cousyn’: John Howard and the House of York (The History Press, 2009)
  • Mediaeval Colchester’s Lost Landmarks (Breedon Books, 2009)

Projects and Fundraising

John Ashdown-Hill is involved in various follow-up projects following the discovery of Richard III's remains. 

One relates directly to an unresolved issue in connection with Richard III himself. Details of that project cannot be released at the moment. However, John's being assisted with financing it by various organisations.

Another follow-up project is in connection with Eleanor Talbot and the fate of her remains. That's why John commissioned a 2D facial reconstruction of the Norwich skull (CF2). This was revealed at the recent study day organised by the Norfolk Branch of the Richard III Society. It confirmed CF2's appearance - and her resemblance to John Talbot, first Earl of Shrewsbury. 

The study day produced some funding, which the Norfolk Branch are holding in a special account for John's work on this project. He and the Norfolk Branch have also won the support and interest of the Castle Museum in Norwich who are now discussing the inclusion of an exhibition relating to CF2 and Eleanor Talbot as part of their new display in the castle keep.

John's planned ways forward include:

  1. A 3D facial reconstruction of CF2 for display in Norwich Castle
  2. A 3D facial reconstruction of Anne Mowbray to see whether it resembles CF2 (because Eleanor was Anne's aunt).
  3. A re-examination of the Norwich bones to check whether it can be confirmed that CF2 had no children
  4. Isotope analysis to check where CF2 grew up

There might also be further scientific work. 

More than £5000 will be required to pay for all of this.

If YOU would be willing to help by making a small donation, please email the secretary of the Norfolk Branch, Annmarie Hayek: